Most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil are alkanes. Most hydrocarbons ...

Most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil are alkanes. Most hydrocarbons are combustible Comprehensive chemical information is needed to understand the environmental fate and impact of hydrocarbons released during oil spills Crude Oil categories Making Oil Useful Crude oil is a finite resource (1) (b) The boiling points of alkanes are linked to the number of carbon atoms in their molecules Alkanes are hydrocarbon chains with the Nomenclature worksheet 7 naming hydrocarbons petroleum or crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons which are molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen The compounds with < n–C 11 were not detected in the samples, which may be because of aging STUDY Hydrocarbons are compounds comprised exclusively of carbon and hydrogen and they are by far the dominant components of crude oil, processed petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil), coal tar, creosote, dyestuff, and pyrolysis waste products 98%, medium-chain paraffins (C21–C26) was 28 Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds What is crude oil the remains of? Ancient biomass, mainly plankton 4 Find my revision workbooks here: https://www (GC-MS) analysis revealed that crude oil n-alkanes were obviously degraded, and high molecular weight n-alkanes were Hydrocarbon gas liquids are hydrocarbons that occur as gases at atmospheric pressure and as liquids under higher pressures Which of the following are hydrocarbons? C 2 H 6, C 30 H 60, C 2 H 5 OH, C 3 H 7 Cl, C 23 H 48 C 2 H 6, C 30 H 60, C 23 H 48 6 Petrol and other fuels are produced from it using fractional distillation only carbon and hydrogen) - alkanes, alkenes and aromatics The Alkanes Are one of the different types of hydrocarbons found in crude oil 2 Long hydrocarbons tend to be semi-solid or solid Their vapour can be collected and condensed - you may have seen this demonstrated at school Crude oil formation Composition of crude oil Crude oil is a mixture of compounds Most of these hydrocarbons are alkanes Alkanes are the hydrocarbons in gasoline that have the greatest weight and density and are the most stable They are made from naturally decaying plants and animals over millions of years Crude oil is a mixture of around 150 hydrocarbons which are mainly straight chain alkanes saturated with hydrogen There are two main commercial sources: crude oil and natural gas The vapours then rise and the different hydrocarbons condense at their specific boiling points, allowing them to be separated Crude oil is a complex mixture of several types of hydrocarbon molecules along with inorganic impurities Crude oil is made up of a mixture of compounds, most of which are long- and short-chain hydrocarbons The exact molecular composition varies widely from formation to formation but the proportion of chemical It is possible to separate the products of hydrocarbon cracking and obtain specific products from a crude oil mix through a process called fractional distillation ; Able to draw the structural and … Typically, crude oil is a mixture of over 150 different hydrocarbons, most of which are unbranched straight chain alkanes However, chemical information remains incomplete because of the limitations of current analytical techniques and the inherent chemical complexity of crude oils Containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms, and it can bond to form long chains or branched chains Download Download PDF e Although they are chemi-cally very inert, most of them can be efficiently degraded by several microorganisms Then, how are alkanes obtained from crude petroleum? Crude oil, hydrocarbons and alkanes There are three different types of hydrocarbon, but most of the ones in crude oil are alkanes All three types have been given below The general formula for an alkane is C H₂ ₂ This video is a good introduction to alkanes and crude oil: Hydr0Gen 2019-02-10T15:45:20+00:00 Categories: Uncategorized | Tags: Chemistry, Alkanes belong to a homologous series of organic compounds They can be classified into two main classes: 3 In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon Most production of hydrocarbons is from fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas, which are extracted from the ground in quantities of millions of tons per day It has the formula CH4 Aromatic hydrocarbons are derived from coal Hydrocarbons are chemical compounds that contain the elements carbon and hydrogen only They It’s a lot of hydrocarbons A short summary of this paper The modifications of crude oil after absorption on silica, montmorillonite, and zeolite were studied So let’s get cracking (get it) with alkenes and crude oil Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: (C₂H₆ or drawn out version) It is a complex multi-component system mainly composed of various hydrocarbons such as alkanes, cycloalkanes, mono-, bi- and polyaromatic compounds, resins and asphaltenes They have the general formula Cn H 2n+2, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the alkane molecule, and n ≥ 1 T/F (Ans Hydrocarbons: These make up the majority of the compounds in crude oil: Most of these hydrocarbons are called These heavier paraffins are soluble in lighter paraffins or other hydrocarbons and can be found in diesel fuel and fuel oils To know what crude oil is Under these conditions, the use of hydrocarbons — molecules consisting of carbon and hydrogen, such as alkanes — has been thought … Page 1 of 21 ABSTRACT Hydrocarbons naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains Friday, 19 June 2020 Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons of dif-ferent sizes and structures Crude oils are most variable because of these four hydrocarbons molecular chains The refinery adapts its process to manufacture as much gasoline (the product with the highest commercial demand) as possible from a given crude The bad news is that organic chemistry is kind of a big topic! So we’re going to split it up into the main topics you need to learn for GCSE, namely alkanes, alkenes and and the cracking of crude oil it was the aim of this study to determine volatile organic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil using a simple, versatile and stable method, which further could easily be applied to field analysis 2010) - Most crude oil is predominantly hydrocarbons (compounds made of Tserennyam Lundaa Naming Hydrocarbons Worksheet 1B – Fuels, alkanes and alkenes Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons contain only the elements hydrogen and carbon Alkenes Alkenes are hydrocarbons with a double bond (some are formed during the Aliphatic hydrocarbons belong to the most abundant fraction in crude oil This is lesson 1 of an ongoing series covering the whole AQA unit 7 on Or Crude oil hydrocarbons largely consist of cycloalkanes and alkanes, as well as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and copper, iron and nickel Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons , 13 C benzene, 13 C naphthalene, or 13 C n-hexane) is deployed in an impacted monitoring well for 30 to 60 days The 13 C label serves much like a tracer which can be detected in the end products of biodegradation – microbial biomass and CO2 Alkanes These are called saturated hydrocarbons Condensed formula is used to represent higher alkanes as drawing them can be time consuming Petroleum is the most common global fossil fuel They are called saturated hydrocarbons because there is a hydrogen in each possible location A hydrocarbon is a substance containing carbon and hydrogen only Crude oil is made up from a mixture of different hydrocarbons Petroleum is a mixture of a very large number of different hydrocarbons; the most commonly found molecules are alkanes (linear or branched), cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, or more For crude oil to be used effectively by modern industry, it has to be separated into its component parts and have impurities like sulfur removed General Formula for Alkanes is: C n H 2n+2 T) M4a) (i) hydrogen / H and carbon / C Found as fossil deposits of crude oil and natural gas The ecological problem is especially … A locked padlock) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the n (1) Petroleum is the most common global fossil fuel The more volatile, lower molecular weight hydrocarbons are removed from the water surface by volatilization Aliphatics may be saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons with double carbon bonds CRUDE OIL Module 3, Objective 3 CRUDE OIL IS A complex mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons found within the Earth gov website General formula for alkanes C n H 2n+2 For example: C 2 H 6 C 6 H 14 Displayed formula for the first four alkanes Alkanes to alkenes Long chain alkanes are cracked into short chain alkenes Alkanes are widely used in petroleum, crude oil, and natural gas Natural gas is a mixture of lightweight alkanes Crude oil consists of a large number of hydrocarbons with different susceptibility to microbial degradation 10 Hydrocarbons containing between six and 10 carbon molecules are the top components of most fuels, regardless of whether they are alkanes, alkenes, or cyclic They are grouped into five main families or homologous series (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, alkadiene) Composition of Crude oil In most cases there are hundreds of different chemical compounds in a sample of crude oil, but they nearly all have the common property of containing only carbon and hydrogen Therefore, most of the hydrocarbons in the crude oil are considered alkanes Crude oil is separated into useful fractions by fractional distillation Contamination of ecosystems by crude oil is an inherent universal topic associated with crude oil drilling, transportation, refining and … These are called saturated hydrocarbons Historical profiles of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), sources and origins in dated sediment Natural gas contains primarily methane and ethane, with some propane and butane: oil is a mixture of liquid alkanes and other hydrocarbons Most of the molecules are either N 2, at 78% of the atmospheric gases, or O 2, at 21% of the atmospheric gases Full PDF Package Download Full PDF Package Alkenes: aliphatic hydrocarbons with at least one C-C double bond – Some other functional groups contain nitrogen atoms, such as the amines and amides Common hydrocarbons: Methane(CH 4) Ethane(C 2 H 6) Propane(C 3 H 8) Butane(C 4 H 10) Pentane(C 5 H 12) Hexane(C 6 H 14) What is the formula of hydrocarbon? The formula for acyclic saturated hydrocarbons (i € (1) 7 There are different types of hydrocarbon, but most of the ones in crude oil are alkanes There are several types of aliphatic hydrocarbons, including alkanes, alkenes and alkynes They do not … microscopic sea creatures trapped in sediments were converted by heat and pressure into crude oil The most general form of saturated hydrocarbons is C n H 2n + 2 (1-r), where r is the number of rings The vapors then rise and the various hydrocarbons condense at their specific boiling points Organic chemistry naming hydrocarbons worksheet The alkanes are a homologues series and it should be pointed out to students that the general formula allows the molecular It is extracted from underground oil deposits by drilling oil wells Most hydrocarbons found on Earth naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains The first four alkanes are methane, ethane, propane and butane Crude Oil and Alkanes paraffins (15-60%) naphthenes (30-60%) … Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting only of hydrogen and carbon atoms, found in fossil fuels like crude oil, natural gas and coal The average crude oil alkanes degradation rate was 26 There are Crude oil evaporates when heated to $$\text{700}$$ $$\text{°C}$$ Methane is part of a homologous series known as the alkanes, which contain single bonds only why are alkanes called saturated hydrocarbons: hydrocarbons, because they are compounds containing hydrogen and carbon only saturated, because their carbon atoms are joined together by single bonds, therefore each carbon atom is bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible Making Polymers The name of the small molecule used to make a polymer is a monomer (b) Crude oil What are most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil? alkanes 7 Hydrocarbons are compounds that are made of carbon and hydrogen atoms only; The hydrocarbon molecules in crude oil consist of a carbon backbone which can be in a ring or chain, with hydrogen atoms attached to … These are called saturated hydrocarbons cyclic alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and alkenes) What are hydrocarbons in crude oil? Hydrocarbons are chains of carbon and hydrogen that make up all organic material – including crude oil This means that they only contain hydrogen and carbon atoms, joined together by chemical bonds Crude oil, also known as petroleum, is the main source for most carbon-containing compounds Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2 Saturated hydrocarbon contains mainly of alkanes which are open chain hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon single bond (a) €€€€The general formula of an alkane is C The most important commercial sources for alkanes are natural gas and oil Methane (CH 4) Ethane (C 2 H 6) Alkanes make poor fuels It might help to know why you need this information It can be separated in the lab into groups of substances with similar boiling points using distillation Paraffins from C 1 to C 40 usually appear in crude oil (heavier alkanes in liquid solution, not as solid particles) and … Large hydrocarbons and long hydrocarbon molecule chains comprise most hydrocarbons in heavy fuels like diesel, diesel fuel, and bunker fuel (residual oil) Crude oil, hydrocarbons and alkanes In particular, the average degradation rate of short-chain alkanes (C9–C20) was 19 Hydrocarbons in crude oil Many compounds in crude oil only contain the elements carbon and hydrogen Crude oil is the complex mixture of hydrocarbons i condenses dissolves freezes melts Each fraction Condenses at a different level rhodochrous Crude oil is the remains of an ancient biomass consisting mainly of plankton that was buried in mud Fractions up to about 70 o contain pentanes, hexanes and heptanes They have the C-C functional group and the general formula C n H 2n+2 www Somewhat larger hydrocarbons, while still liquid, are more viscous and have higher boiling points, and are used as kerosene and motor oil Coal is a solid fuel, petroleum is a dark and viscous liquid fuel (otherwise called crude oil), and natural gas is a gaseous fuel alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatic (benzene like) compounds petroleum Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds Natural gas is mostly methane (CH 4) Crude oil is a mixture of substances (mostly hydrocarbons) Read more : Conformation Some of the examples of this type of compound are- Ethane (C 2 H 6), Propane (C 3 H 8), Butane (C 4 H 10), and Octane (C 8 H 18) There are other uses for oil: This question is about hydrocarbons Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons have simple or moderately complex structures Most of the time the bond exists in the form of a covalent bond Journal of Biotechnology, 2012 alkanes, alkenes and alkynes Alkanes Most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil are hydrocarbons called alkanes They are hydrocarbons The hydrocarbons within a homologous series share a general formula, chemical and Keeping this in consideration, how are alkanes obtained from crude petroleum? Crude oil, hydrocarbons and alkanes Crude oil is also known as Longer chain hydrocarbons have ____ boiling points Comparing to other anaerobic degrading conditions, which use nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, chlorate or ferric iron as the electron Crude oil is a non-renewable resource, a fossil fuel If the alkane has more than three carbon atoms, it can be arranged in various structures and this forms the basis of structural isomers It is shown that in the composite pollution system, the addition of four strains could promote the degradation of crude oil Alkanes, or paraffins Ethane—C 2 H 6 Grade A Keywords: Mixture, Fractions, Distillation, Hydrocarbon, Alkanes, Saturated, Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane, Separation Refinery gas remains a ___ and Open one of Alkanes are a family of hydrocarbon compounds with the general formula CnH2n+2 The influence of hydrocarbon structure and molecular weight on hydrocarbon biodegradation under anaerobic conditions is not fully explored There are different families of hydrocarbon, each containing a variety of related chemicals Alkanes contain a single chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms bonded along the side Linear alkanes (8 ± 1%), bran ched alkanes Aromatic Hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, cycloalkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons When burnt with oxygen, hydrocarbons will release energy, which will literally keep the wheels of your car turning All categories falling under aliphatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons like alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes 5 percent sulfur The general formula for the homologous series of alkanes is C₂H₂ₙ₊₂ Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites The ecological problem is especially … The bacterial consortium could first degrade medium and long chain alkanes into short chain hydrocarbons and then further degrade Crude oil is a mixture Crude oil is made up of many different types of hydrocarbon chains all mixed together The Fischer–Tropsch process is a method to synthesize liquid hydrocarbons, including alkanes, from carbon monoxide and crude oil Generally, alkanes make up about 50% of crude oil although the source of the oil may alter the concentration A more accurate, though equally elementary, the answer is: crude oil is a heterogeneous mixture of hydrocarbons The simplest alkane, methane (CH4), is the Hydrocarbons are some of the most important chemicals in our life 50 Naming Compounds Practice Worksheet in 2020 Practices from www (a) The hydrocarbons in crude oil are separated into fractions by fractional distillation Properties of alkenes: Like alkanes, the boiling point, melting point and densities increase with larger size molecules The hydrocarbons found in crude oil have different uses … In this video we will explore the formation of crude oil, hydrocarbons and alkanes Alkane Gasoline is a mixture of alkanes from pentane up to about decane The alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons: hydrocarbons , because they are compounds containing hydrogen and carbon only saturated , because their carbon atoms are joined by C-C single bonds The main source of hydrocarbons is crude oil Alkanes are separated in an oil refinery by fractional distillation and processed into many products The different types of hydrocarbons include Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes alkanes, and naphthenes contain a single chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms bonded along the The most abundant hydrocarbons in North Sea crudes are likely to be C4-C8 normal alkanes and BTX 2012) pinterest Crude oils are usually classified by the major type of hydrocarbons in the oil Natural gas and crude oil are mixtures of different hydrocarbons Some is heavier, some lighter, and some sour, meaning it contains more than about 2 Each of the hydrocarbons present in crude oil has a ; The names of the first four alkenes are methane, ethane, propane and butane Long-chain alkanes are found in crude oil Such formations are characterized by deeply buried source rock containing hydrocarbon material, a permeable reservoir rock for it to A locked padlock) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the Hydrocarbons can be solids, liquids or gasses and are what petroleum and natural gas are primarily made Each source varies in its mixture slightly Hydrocarbons in Fuel Along with water, hydrocarbon molecules are the building blocks of life In comparison with pure hydrocarbons, crude Received 3 February, 2011; accepted 17 July, 2011 Alkanes are known as saturared hydrocarbons The general representation of alkane is C n H 2n+2 in case of non-cyclic structures It means all carbon atoms are bonded to the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms possible, i Alkanes The most common method of refining crude is the process of fractional distillation Hydrocarbons are compounds that are made of carbon and hydrogen atoms only Now take 6 Petri dishes They condense and drain out much later on, nearer the ___ Other than these, crude oil likewise contains little measure of non-hydrocarbons (sulfur mixes, nitrogen mixes, and oxygen … All three types have been given below Alkanes account for 30% to 30% of a barrel of oil on average, but they can vary from 15% to 60 Most hydrocarbons in crude oil are alkanes 1 Alkanes Crude petroleum-oil is a complex mixture of hydrophobic components like n-alkanes, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes Alkynes: aliphatic hydrocarbons with at least a C-C triple bond They're used as fuels & have the general formula CnH2n+2 The majority of these are alkanes E-mail n f Hydrocarbons in crude oil 7 Moreover, it is also an interesting area of research for bioremediation of oil-contaminated environments The carbon atoms join together to form the framework of the compound, and the hydrogen atoms attach to them in many different configurations We can be classified into two main classes: aliphatic, and hydrocarbon The two most common forms are natural gas and crude oil Carbon compounds as fuels and feedstock HGLs can also be liquefied by cooling This is rather a complex question In this study oxygen, nitrate and sulphate served a … They are used as fuels, burnt to release heat and other forms of energy Gasoline is obtained as a mixture of C5 to C11 hydrocarbons boiling from 50 to 200 o; Alkanes Petroleum (crude oil) principally consist of carbon (83–87%) and hydrogen (12–14%) having complex hydrocarbon blend like paraffins, naphthenes, fragrant hydrocarbons, vaporous hydrocarbons (from CH 4 to C 4 H 10) ; These are all saturated hydrocarbons, meaning they contain carbon-carbon single bonds only If an alkane has 1 carbon atom in its " It is used to describe a broad range of hydrocarbons that are found as gases, liquids, or solids beneath the surface of the earth Crude oil is a _____ 2 Hundreds of other What are alkanes? Crude oi l is a finite resource found in rocks 2n+2 As stated earlier, the most important source of alkanes is natural gas and crude oil Petroleum is a mixture of a very large number of different hydrocarbons Crude oil is a mixture of comparatively volatile liquid hydrocarbons (compounds composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon ), though it also contains some nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons from the alkane family which can be extracted Changes in iso- and n-alkane distribution during biodegradation of crude oil under nitrate and sulphate reducing conditions 5: Hydrocarbon Types PLAY They are generally used as fuel for combustion g Name the elements in a hydrocarbon Carbon and hydrogen 5 Crude oil A finite resource Consisting mainly of plankton that was buried in the mud, crude oil is the remains of ancient biomass The hydrocarbons in crude oil are mainly alkanes and, apart from burning, these aren't actually very reactive As you heat up the mixture, the alkanes with the lowest boiling points will start to evaporate It is a mixture of hydrocarbons, substances which contains only carbon and hydrogen 77% after 7 days Alkanes Most of the hydrocarbons They vary in size and shape and viscosity Hydrocarbons are the principal constituents of petroleum and natural gas The main source of hydrocarbons is crude oil Bacterial and fungal isolates differed in their ability to degrade crude oil, with Rhodococcus isolates being more active that fungin in n-alkane biodegradation, particularly in the case of R Microorganisms are known to attack and degrade a specific component as Most of the hydrocarbons are Alkanes Hydrocarbons are molecules made up from carbon & hydrogen atoms Most hydrocarbons belong to the family of molecules called alkanes Alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2 Transportation to oil refining Oil well Separation of hydrocarbons top of fractionating column Most of the possible hydrocarbons in crude oil, such as alkanes, alcohols, and aldehydes, are linked by a series of chain reactions They make up something called a homologous series, which is a group of molecules which share the same general formula, undergo the same chemical reactions and show trends in their physical properties Mixture of many compunds their complete oxidation of crude oil alkanes to acetate and/or hydrogen in syntrophic partnership with methanogens in such systems Gasoline, for instance, is a complex mixture but consists mostly of alkanes with 5-8 carbons Teacher notes Subsequently, one may also ask, is crude oil made of alkanes or alkenes? Crude oil is unrefined liquid petroleum; it contains predominantly carbon and hydrogen in the form of alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons), alkenes and alkynes (both unsaturated), and aromatic hydrocarbons Cracking crude oil will generally produce a mixture rich in alkanes and alkenes Crude Oil, Alkanes and Alkenes Start studying 2) Hydrocarbons, Alkenes and Alkanes Alkanes are held together by single bonds Most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil are F; crude oil is the origin of most hydrocarbons) Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Crude oil is mostly a mixture of many different alkanes and cycloalkanes, with some aromatic compounds 41%, and long-chain alkanes (C27–C39) was 31 Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons, which are molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only Crude oil is vaporised and passed through a column Still, that does very little to detail the components of crude oil Alkanes are a group of saturated hydrocarbons Alkanes can be further classified depending upon the structure – linear branched or cyclic alkanes These hydrocarbon molecules are: Paraffinic (or alkane series) hydrocarbons Fractional distillation takes advantage of differences in the boiling points of the components of the mixture (see Figure 5 Alkanes are hydrocarbons containing only single bonds between the carbon atoms Crude oil is the origin of most aromatic hydrocarbons They contain only sp 3 hybridized carbon atoms and their general formula is C n H 2n+2 The general formula for the homologous series of alkanes is CₙH₂ₙ₊₂; The first four members of the alkanes are methane, ethane, propane and butane It is also called petroleum and is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which also contains natural gas Crude oil is made from ancient biomass found in rocks The general formula of the alkenes is C n H 2n Most alkenes are formed when fractions from the fractional distillation of crude oil are cracked com C7: Hydrocarbons 5 mL of pre-enrichment cultures; (3) the crude oil-free control group: 1 g of sterile crude oil An unusually low content of n -alkanes in oils of certain deposits is commonly attributed to selective utilization of these hydrocarbons by aerobic microorganisms 3,4 Crude oil is predominantly a mixture of hydrocarbons, but every crude oil is a unique mixture of molecular compounds Under this consideration, only the mixing tests of 1-decanol and 1-decanal with crude oil were conducted The larger alkanes with carbon chain lengths of over 35 atoms are soft solids and are used in the construction industry for roofing and roads CnH2n is the standard formula for alkenes Hydrocarbons are compounds made only of carbon and hydrogen Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading gray@ncl Those elements form a large variety of complex … An Alkane, (paraffin) is a saturated hydrocarbon that consists only of hydrogen and carbon atoms and all bonds are single bonds They differ from the approximately 64% aliphatic hydrocarbons (straight chain alkanes and cycloalkanes), l-2% unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes), and 35% aromatic Petroleum, often known as crude oil, is the most important natural source of hydrocarbons Crude oil is a mixture of mostly alkanes 83% Q1 Typically the OD600 is measured This Paper That is because large hydrocarbon molecules and molecule chains have high energy density While some crude oil compounds are readily degraded, long-chain alkanes, and particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are relatively resistant to biodegradation Click to see full answer 8 Over 17 000 organic compounds have been identified in crude oil, and subdivided into four main classes: the saturates, aromatics, asphaltenes and resins (Marshall and Rodgers, 2004) VOCs in crude oil primarily include alkanes with <10 carbons (super VOCs) and simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) This review summarizes current knowledge on how microorgan- Many compounds in crude oil only contain the elements carbon and (ii) C nH 2n+2 1 (b) (most) crude oil vaporises / evaporates or crude oil enters as a vapour 1 (vapour) cools as it rises up the tower / column or tower / column cooler at the top or negative tem-perature gradient 1 Crude oil is a finite resource The first member in the alkane … Alkanes are hydrocarbons with the general formula C CnHn nH2n CH2n+2 Petroleum or crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other chemicals Properties of Alkanes The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source [1] : 620 Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14 hydrides Most of the ones in crude oil are from the alkane family Achieving reliable predictions for the thermodynamics and phase equilibrium data of N 2 /oil systems is complex and difficult The susceptibility of hydrocarbons to microbial degradation can be generally ranked as follows: linear alkanes > branched alkanes > … Moreover, it is also an interesting area of research for bioremediation of oil-contaminated environments How hydrocarbons are processed from crude oil/petroleum - One of the major uses of crude oil is as fuel in internal combustion engines They are found in petroleum, coal, natural gas and crude oil Some of this variation is reflected in the finished petroleum product Products of crude oil The term petroleum comes from the Latin stems petra , "rock," and oleum, "oil 4:07 know that crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons; 4:08 describe how the industrial process of fractional distillation separates crude oil into fractions; 4:09 know the names and uses of the main fractions obtained from crude oil: refinery gases, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil and bitumen Crude oil is raw material consisting of many hydrocarbons, particularly 84-87% of carbon, 12-14% of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur (1-2%) (Simanzhenkov, 2003 ) Page 4 Geologists know where to locate oil reservoirs based on rock formation types General formula for alkanes C n H 2n+2 For example: C 2 H 6 C 6 H 14 Carbon compounds as fuels and Alkane type is not very reactive due to the stability of the carbon bond Alkanes are also called saturates or saturated hydrocarbons In addition to this, aromatic hydrocarbons like methane, ethane, propane also serve as good examples for hydrocarbons Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons means, they formed by a single bond in between the carbon atoms Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons called alkanes So, the question, “what is the best gasoline produced in the world?” is answerable by determining which regions produce the most crude oil with Fischer–Tropsch Hydrocarbons are divided into four subcategories: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons € Give two conditions used to crack large alkane molecules 5 Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil It has been discovered that PAHs are one of the major factors causing the rapid development of Alkanes are the most susceptible; following this are light aromatics (MAHs), cycloalkanes, heavy aromatics (PAH), resins, and asphaltenes The simplest alkane is methane , alkanes) is C n H 2n + 2 d The three major classes are: (1) paraffinic (alkanes); (2) aromatic with naphthenic and … Aliphatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons based on chains of C atoms 2 Crude Oil Page 2 of 30 Crude oil is a finite resource found in rocks 2 heating oil is second in demand The hydrocarbons in crude oil For more information, see: Hydrocarbons, Petroleum refining processes, and Petrochemical saturated compounds The alkanes form a homologous series In case you didn’t know, crude oil is pretty important stuff! Crude oil is a complex mixture of thousands of com-pounds Most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil are alkanes The methanogenic conversion of crude oil hydrocarbons requires syntrophic communities of acetogenic bacteria and They share the same formula: C n H 2n+2 The general formula of saturated hydrocarbons or alkanes is C n H 2n+2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in one molecule of the alkane The hydrocarbons found in crude oil have different uses … Crude oil is a finite resource which we find in the Earth's crust 5g of agar is added to the medium and Nutrient Agar(with 1% crude oil) is prepared They are thick and don't easily combust The main source of these liquid alkane fuels is crude oil, a complex mixture that is separated by fractional distillation The gas bubbles Cracking can produce pure carbon, pure hydrogen, and other types of hydrocarbon, as well as All of the others are in small concentrations Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that crude oil n-alkanes were obviously degraded, and high molecular weight n-alkanes were preferentially removed over relatively shorter-chain n-alkanes Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons They are named using standard nomenclature rules and the suffix -ane Alkanes are also known as _____ a) alkenes b) paraffin c) aromatic d) alicyclic These are also known as paraffins or saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon Methane (CH ) is an example of a hydrocarbon *For correspon-dence Those Crude Oil Alkanes are the main hydrocarbon found in crude oil Hydrocarbons, Hydrogen, Carbon, Hydrocarbons, Fractions Widespread use of crude oil/petroleum causes serious environmental problems in the forms of effluents from oil refinery plants and accidental oil spills Alkenes, like alcohol and polyethylene, are more reactive Key Concepts Aliphatic hydrocarbons are composed of hydrogen and carbon, which can be linear, branched or cyclic These fuels are hydrocarbons, but also include impurities such as sulfur mixture of hydrocarbons com Alkanes … In general, petroleum oil hydrocarbons are not necessary substrates for hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, and they utilize these compounds as alternative carbon and energy sources, especially in the absence of their preferable substrates These two elements may be hooked together many ways, in long chains, large branched Biodegradation is the process by which microorganisms break down crude oil compounds using various enzymatic reactions, turning them eventually into carbon dioxide, water-soluble compounds, and Paraffins from C1 to C40 usually appear in crude oil (heavier alkanes in liquid solution, not as From: Treatise on Geochemistry, 2007 ac Not particularly reactive & are found in crude oil & natural gas The hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes, cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons while the other organic compounds contain nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel, copper and vanadium Fossil fuels such as coal, gas and oil are derived from crude oil We can produce short-chain alkanes by cracking these longer molecules, and also synthesise alkanes by hydrogenating alkenes The saturated hydrocarbons in heavy crude oil used in this study were mainly n-alkanes with chain length more than 16 Polar compounds and the mono-aromatic hydrocarbons are soluble in water and are taken into solution The monomer ethene forms an addition polymer (a polymer made up of similar monomers) called polythene [poly(ethene)] H H H H H H C C C C C H H H H H Ethene C 2 H 4 Poly(ethene) (C 2 H 4)n Note that one of the bonds in the double bond has broken allowing the ethene molecule to join … control group: 7 [2] The members of this series contain a double bond They turn to liquid and are tapped off early on A key ancillary process is that of emulsification (by oil dispersants), since crude oil has a natural tendency to form emulsions in sea They are the most dominant component of combustible materials such as crude oil, petroleum, etc Those aliphatic hydrocarbons with a ring of C atoms are called cycloalkanes or cycloalkenes or cycloalkynes 8, the analysis of alkane with chain length less than C36 in the crude oil showed that the content of C13-C16, C8-C13 and C16-C20 alkane increased by 155%, 117% and 106% respectively, and the content of C20-C28 The majority of hydrocarbons found in crude oil are alkanes which consist of carbon atoms bound by single bonds only Fractional Distillation The ecological problem is especially … The EPA’s definition is akin to saying ice cream is a frozen dairy product none The alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons: hydrocarbons , because they are compounds containing hydrogen and carbon only saturated , because their carbon atoms are joined by C-C single bonds Alkanes are the major constituents of crude oil and the major constituents of most petroleum products Home School Figure 1 shows a fractional distillation column Page 11 of 20 Mainly made of hydrocarbons Crude oil and alkanes Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds, mostly hydrocarbons the compounds in crude oil Most of these hydrocarbons are called alkanes Describe and explain how the mixture of alkanes is separated by fractional (i)€€€€€€Large alkane molecules can be cracked to produce more useful molecules The most common hydrocarbons found in petroleum crude oil are linear or branched alkanes (also called paraffins), cycloalkanes (also called cyclic paraffins or … Although methanogenic degradation of hydrocarbons has become a well-known process, little is known about which crude oil tend to be degraded at different temperatures and how the microbial community is responded Gas chromatograms of n-alkanes treated by Pseudomonas resinovorans, Plantibacter auratus and the crude oil control sample (m/z 85) are shown in Fig In spite of humanity’s need for petroleum, it negatively affects the environment due to its toxicity hydrogen Most of the hydrocarbons found in crude oil are alkanes Q6 The fractions boiling under 20 o contain methane, ethane, propane and butane Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that some compounds are kept better by the solid support than other ones Different vegetable oils, as well as oils of the same type, but of different variety and provenience, show typical n-alkane patterns, which could be used as a fingerprint to characterize them After millions of years, pressure and high temperature converted those remains into crude oil Alkanes are the major Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons uk/workbooksIn this video, we start the topic on organic chemistry A mixture of hydrocarbons 3 Crude oil coats the water’s surface in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil rig sank following an explosion Answer (1 of 3): Fractional Distillation Fractional distillation takes place in the fractionating column The carbon atoms that make up the carbon backbone are linked together to form a chain (linear or branched alkanes), a circle (cyclic alkenes), or a mixture of both • Hydrocarbons Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons Generally we will want to use cells that are in their mid-log phase of growth Leaking underground storage tanks (LUST) are the most frequent causes of Alkanes are a group of hydrocarbons that only contain single covalent bonds – we call them Alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes Alkanes Most if the hydrocarbons in crude oil are part of the family or homologous series known as alkanes Alkanes are the most abundant constituents in crude oil and are the first component to be degraded Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds, made purely of carbon and hydrogen The term saturated means that they only have single carbon-carbon bonds, there are no double bonds; The general formula of the alkanes is C n H 2n+2; They are colourless compounds which have a gradual change in their physical properties as the number of carbon atoms in the chain increases The main types of hydrocarbon in crude oil come from the family of chemicals known as the alkanes - for example, octane, an important component of the petrol that we use as fuel for cars Among these Rhodococcus strains were the most efficient in oil degradation and, relatively speaking, the most abundant In general, the term saturated hydrocarbons is most used to denote acyclic hydrocarbons also known as alkanes There are four bonds for each carbon atom in alkane, C- H or C- C bond are possible one Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of hydrocarbons It’s formed from fossil remains obtained from reservoir’s thousands of feet below the ground The acronym PHC (petroleum hydrocarbons) is widely used to refer to the hydrogen- and carbon-containing compounds originating from crude oil, but Petroleum hydrocarbons are predominantly one of two types, aromatics or alkanes The oil is heated to vaporize the various hydrocarbons in a tank that is cold at the top and hot at the bottom hydrocarbons, which include the alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons These are aliphatic hydrocarbons which form the homologous series of the saturated hydrocarbons (a)€€€€€Most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil are alkanes Vegetable oils contain endogenous linear hydrocarbons, namely n-alkanes, ranging from n-C 21 to n-C 35, with odd chain lengths prevalent They are called hydrocarbons because they only contain hydrogen and carbon Alkanes are the simplest aliphatic compounds, containing only carbon and hydrogen held together by single bonds and not containing a ring It is also used in fuel as a combustible source examqa Hydrocarbons are compounds that are made up of hydrogen and carbon Most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil are hydrocarbons called alkanes The study of hydrocarbons can reveal information on the chemical characteristics and manufacture of other functional groups The oil is called crude oil (or petroleum, from Latin - rock oil), and has natural gas in it or in a pocket above it trapped by non-porous rock Alkanes contain just single carbon bonds and have the general formula C n H 2n+2 Degradation of hydrocarbons A finite resource: Consisting mainly of plankton that was buried in the mud, crude oil is the remains of ancient biomass This is: CnH2n+2 Alkanes are a family of simple hydrocarbons They serve as fuels … Crude Oil Essay 809 Words | 4 Pages Crude oil is heated to vaporize the different hydrocarbons in a tank which is cool at the top and hot at the bottom The crude oil enters the chamber and, due to differing boiling points, the hydrocarbons are separated into different groups such as naphtha and bitumen Crude oil degradation analysis N-alkanes Most of the compounds found in crude oil are hydrocarbons We look at how crude o Complete the structural formula for the alkane that has six carbon atoms in its molecules As shown in Fig Structure of Alkanes Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons containing carbon and hydrogen atoms only in chain-shaped or ring-like structures Cracking is used to convert long alkanes into shorter, more useful hydrocarbons Alkanes have only single bonds Crude oil, a type of fossil fuel, can be refined to produce usable products such as gasoline, diesel, and various other forms of petrochemicals Most hydrocarbons in crude oil are compounds called alkanes Answer: b Clarification: Alkanes are saturated aliphatic open chain hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon single bonds Hydrocarbons are the most widely used organic compounds In the first part of this review, data on the … Alkanes are hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H n C n H 2n C n H 2n+2 (1) Page 18 of 47 (b) Crude oil is separated into useful fractions by fractional distillation Have no double bonds A more detailed explanation is needed because the valuable components of crude oil, hydrocarbons, fall under different types and categories Crude pictured, contain a considerable amount of low and medium weight hydrocarbons Correspondingly, how are hydrocarbons produced? It is very important in the formation of hydrocarbons because it is what generates oil and gas Most hydrocarbons found in crude oil are alkanes Hydrocarbons containing only single bonds are called alkanes High efficiency degradation of alkanes and crude oil by a salt-tolerant bacterium Dietzia species CN-3 The calculated growth yield of the Marinobacter There are three types of aliphatic hydrocarbons Crude oil is a naturally occurring, unrefined petroleum product composed of hydrocarbon deposits and other organic materials _____ (2) 5 Crude oil consist mainly of a variety of … While cracking can be performed on unsaturated hydrocarbons, like alkenes, we will focus on cracking as it applies to the abundant saturated hydrocarbons in crude oil On the other hand, oil wells Cracking produces molecules containing a carbon-carbon double bond (alkenes) and these are much more reactive and can be turned into useful products Characterization of alkanes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tar-balls collected from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia They belong to the hydrocarbon family Aromatics, which are based on a 6-carbon ring, tend to be the molecular compounds in oil that are the most toxic to marine life Numerous parallel cultures were prepared in each set, and incubated without shaking at 35 and 55uC in the dark Hydrocarbons are compounds made of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by covalent bonds (BBC, 2014) The crude oil is the primary source of hydrocarbons the -CH 3 group appears on each pair of carbons on the ‘chain’ NB any double bonds = 0 marks 1 [9] (a) heat to vaporise (the crude oil) do not accept cracking / burning 1 4 vapours condense 1 at different temperatures allow they have different boiling points 1 (b) (alkanes) are hydrocarbons or are compounds of hydrogen and carbon only 1 Complete the sentence As each alkane evaporates off, the temperature will rise and the next Crude oil is a finite resource which we find in the Earth's crust; It is also called petroleum and is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which also contains natural gas Aliphatics molecules are linear or branched open-chain structures such as n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cycloalkanes (naphthenes), terpenes and steranes Hydrocarbons These make up the majority of the compounds in crude oil Most of these hydrocarbons are called alkanes 1 Hydrocarbon: An organic chemical compound composed exclusively of hydrogen and carbon atoms €€€€€€€€€ Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons The alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons that share the same general formula Crude oil Alkanes are quantitatively the most significant components of petroleum hydrocarbons (Head et al Print There are four main types of hydrocarbons found in crude oil They are called hydrocarbons These are called saturated hydrocarbons Alkanes are always covalently bonded (+44) (0 Crude oil is separated by fractional distillation Others are very heavy, tar-like materials (i) Large alkane molecules can be cracked to produce more useful molecules ; The general formula for the homologous series of alkanes is C n H 2n+2 alkanes Two to three vials in each set were sacrificed for DNA extraction and/or crude oil determination at different time points The most abundant of these mixtures are the ones containing hydrogen and carbon only The equation shows the cracking of dodecane uk; Tel They are compounds that are obtained from the fossil fuel crude oil … The prediction of kinetics of the key groups of hydrocarbons in crude oil was important to evaluate the bioremediation speed and constant • Alkanes The alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons that share the same general formula The modifications which occurred The crude oil is sent to refineries where it is distilled to separate the different alkanes present Kerosene, diesel oil, and fuel oil are primarily mixtures of alkanes with higher molecular masses co Aliphatic compounds can be saturated or unsaturated , which allows them to be separated 94%, indicating that the degradation rate of long-chain alkanes was relatively high Each of the carbon atoms in an alkane has sp 3 hybrid orbitals and is bonded to four other atoms, In other words, alkanes produce the most energy and alkanes oxidize the cleanest In this unit of class 11 chemistry, we will learn in detail about nomenclature, isomerism, structure, preparation, physical & chemical properties of alkanes, … The federal government has left much of the specific regulation and oversight of crude oil production/ refining to the states Hydrocarbons occur naturally and form the basis of crude oil, natural gas, coal, and other important energy sources Choose the answer from the box 4 The bacterial consortium could first degrade medium and long chain alkanes into short chain hydrocarbons and then further degrade Alkanes are aliphatic hydrocarbons with only single covalent bonds All crude oil, though, is a mixture of different hydrocarbons, which are molecules composed of hydrogen and carbon Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule, CH 4 Separation of the different hydrocarbon chains is done through fractional distillation: This takes place in a fractionating column hydrocarbon, any of a class of organic chemical compounds composed only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) Naphthenic (or … These are called saturated hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are molecules of carbon and hydrogen in various combinations Hydrocarbons are … With the SIP method, a Bio-Trap® amended with a 13 C “labeled” contaminant (e Alkanes make poor fuels, are thick and don't combust easily Organic chemistry Among them, alkanes constitute the major fraction Alkanes contain only single bonds which means that they are saturated hydrocarbons Petroleum hydrocarbons are the most common environmental pollutants, including n-alkane, cycloalkane and aromatic hydrocarbons that have been regarded as serious ecological and public health concerns (Bao et al Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms There are many hydrocarbons Section 2 –Crude Oil 1 Alkanes, or saturated hydrocarbons, contain only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms 5 Subculturing Of Petri Plates with oil % of crude oil is mixed with 100 ml of Nutrient broth medium Hydrocarbons in which each carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms are called alkanes or saturated hydrocarbons Figure 1 Crude oil vapour passes up the column And the dechlorination efficiency of 2,4-DCP in the degradation system reached 73 Glucose (C H O ) is not a hydrocarbon because oxygen is present The first four members of the alkanes are methane, ethane, propane and butane 4) The shorter hydrocarbons have _____ boiling points It is Formed from decaying remains of microscopic plants and animals that were buried and preserved in rocks its own mix of constituents • Molecules with the same functional group Mineral oil (‘baby oil’) is also composed of alkanes in this group; petroleum jelly (Vaseline™) is similar They are also known as paraffins Alkanes: aliphatic hydrocarbons with single covalent bonds (a) The general formula of an alkane is CnH2n+2 Complete the structural formula for the alkane that has six carbon atoms in its molecules … Chemistry Multiple Choice Questions on “Hydrocarbons – Alkanes” Study Crude Oil, Fractional Distillation and Hydrocarbons flashcards from Georgia Dobson's Hinchley Wood School class online, or in Brainscape' s iPhone Not all crude oil has the same composition In oil industry, the following terms for the different hydrocarbons are used: Paraffins: Alkenes - lineare, saturated molecules, straight or branched chains Olefins: Alkenes - lineare, unsaturated molecules, straight or branched chains (these are normally not present in unprocessed crude oil) Naphthenes: Cycloalkanes - saturated ring structures, or cycloalkenes - partly saturated ring freesciencelessons Alkanes are the most stable hydrocarbons as the carbon bonds are difficult to break Kerstin Scherr Diesel fuel/No Unsaturated hydrocarbons are more likely to be solid than their saturated counterparts as are cyclic hydrocarbons H A hydrocarbon is an organic chemical compound composed exclusively of hydrogen and carbon atoms While true, the answer does not begin to explain what crude oil is made of The alkanes are then used in combustion processes – Many functional groups contain oxygen atoms, such as alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters The crude oil sample had alkanes ranging from C 11 to C 40 Save Save Chemsheets-AS-1078-Crude-oil For Later 0% 0% found this document useful, Mark this document as useful 0% 0% found this document not useful, Mark this document as not useful Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons Group activity How to get hydrocarbons from Crude oil sequence the process This is done using a fractionating column Most of the n-alkanes (C9–C29) were degraded in 25 days, and the average degradation rates of C … 2 Source rocks must They are so-called because they only contain hydrogen and carbon atoms, which are joined together by covalent chemical bonds This is a family of hydrocarbons that all share the same general formula and have chemical properties that are similar The ecological problem is especially … Moreover, it is also an interesting area of research for bioremediation of oil-contaminated environments 1 Crude oil The 1 … Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons These include the carbon oxides, hydrocarbons, and halocarbons (molecules with carbon bonded to F, Cl, Br, or I) (a) €€€€The general formula of an alkane is C n H 2n+2 Complete the structural formula for the alkane that has six carbon atoms in its molecules Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons All the carbon-carbon bonds are single covalent Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds Hydrocarbons are compounds that are made up of the elements hydrogen and carbon only How is the mixture of alkanes separated by fractional One reason for this is that crude oil, itself, varies in its composition hydrocarbons The distilled liquid from each level contains a mixture of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons with The general formula for the homologous series of alkanes is C n H 2n+2 trapped in sediments were converted by heat and pressure into crude oil Alkanes (Paraffins) Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2 The hydrocarbon molecules in crude oil consist of a carbon backbone which can be in a ring or chain The South China Sea is also a favored route for supertankers carrying crude oil to the Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons, which are molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon only The general formula for the homologous series of alkanes is C₂H₂ₙ₊₂; The first four members of the alkanes are methane, ethane, propane and butane These hydrocarbons can take on a number of different forms, i The leak was a mile below the surface, making it difficult to estimate the size of the spill LO: To understand how crude oil is separated into fractions However, hydrocarbons are not easily dissolvable organic compounds Hydrocarbons contain only hydrogen and Carbon The second simplest